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Luna X-1 Enduro FS ebike

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    Luna X-1 Enduro FS ebike

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    Unboxing & assembly:

    This bike is shipped in a box so some assembly required. If you are unsure on how to assemble the bike and also setup it up (checking the fork and shock pressure and adjusting the derailleur) you can watch the 2 unboxing videos we linked or you can also go to your local bike shop to have it assembled and setup for you.

    Please make sure that you installed your wheel spacers, they go on each side of the hub.

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    Like any bike, NEVER use a power washer EVER (not even a jet on a garden hose). Never spray water on hubs, pivots and motor, hand wash only and rinse it with a spray bottle or weak rain type of jet from your garden hose. Never submerge the motor or battery in water. In fact we recommend you to only wash it using a rag and a water spray bottle that is it.

    Get yourself a bottle of tri-flow oil and put some onto your frame pivots and also the motor spindle seals to avoid squeaks and creaks.

    1. Charge your battery
    2. Go over all the bolts before your first ride, especially the axle bolts, headset , stem & top cap Click here to see how to adjust the headset & stem. Also make sure to tighten the rear axle, see if the nuts at both ends of the axles are tight and that there is no play (side to side) on the cassette. if unsure please watch this video, it shows at the beginning the 2 nuts that keeps the axle/hub assembly together :
    3. Check if both brakes work fine and if the pads dont rub too much on the disks. If the brakes are spongy or if you have too much drag you will have to so a brake adjusment or bleeding.
    4. Check the tire pressure, too low and you can pinch the tube or rip the valve off due to slippage. Too much pressure and it wont ride good off road.
    5. Move over to the rear and check if the rear axle is solid & suspension components are secured. If the rear shock is loose t then you much tighten the nut to the torque spec (it's written on the nut)
    6. Check Spoke tension and recheck them after a few rides, they can come loose and you can rip nipples out of the rim or worst. If unsure how to properly tighten spokes and true a wheel, please take the wheel to a trusted local bike shop.
    7. Check the front fork and rear shock, verify that it has proper sag, if not add or remove air in them.

    General info
    Shifting: Take care not to shift under load, especially if going up steep hills, as this can be hard on your cassette and chain. Let off the throttle, or the PAS, then shift.

    Display is a special display that works only with this bike, no other display will work for it. It uses CAN communication so it will not work with any BBSxx / Ultra series display. This display also has a USB port, a nice surprise. To change the basic settings of the display hold down + & -. To reset the trip odometer, select trip and hit + and - at the same time. Take care not to over tighten the mount on the display!

    There is a key to lock/unlock the battery from the frame. The position of the key does NOT affect power. Please note that we do not currently have spare keys so take care not to lose the key. We recommend to store the key at home in a safe place. Without the key you can not remove the battery.
    Please be careful when turning the key. It may make it drop out without much warning once you have turned the key, so be prepared for that by holding the battery as you turn the key.

    Rear sprocket has 12 gears but is limited out so only 11 are used, as the 12th gear may skip due to chainline. You can adjust this to use this gear by changing the limit screw on the derailer but please note it will make it intermittently a bit noisy in this gear.

    The battery is charged with a standard barrel. This means you can use something like the solderless barrel in conjunction with 48v Advanced Charger or 48v Mini to charge the bike if preferred over the included charger.

    This bike has a temp sensor and high temp cutoff to prevent damage to the motor/controller.
    At high temp it will scale back the power. If heat continues to rise, it will briefly shut down to protect the internals.

    The chainring of this bike is a standard 32T 4 bolt 104 BCD Narrow-Wide chainring (stock chain length is 116 links). As such there are many aftermarket rings available for it if you want to go with a larger chainring, 38T will fit, 40T could fit depending on the brand you get. But 42T will be really close to rub on the chain stay so make sure to double check! You can change the chainring without removing the chainring spyder. A 38t will raise the top speed to around 28mph.

    Stock chain is 116 links
    If you install a Luna 42T 104 BCD ring you will need a new 126 link chain.

    Tapered steerer, 1.125 x 1.5 headset
    Headset ZS44 and ZS56 (zero stack)
    31.8mm on the bars, with a length about 32"
    Clamp on the stem is 31.8.
    Seatpost diameter 30.9

    Combining the front 32T and the 11T rear you should be able to reach close to 22mph at over 100rpm (crank rotation), see below spreadsheet of the speed in each gear VS various cadence RPM. So if you bought this bike for speed rather than Enduro (its intended purpose) then you will probably want to swap to a larger chainring!
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    (Note for folks that ordered with the high performance ludicrous option: as with all luna ludicrous mods the display will show wattage as half of actual. If you want a accurate wattage reading, wire in a watt meter as demonstrated here)

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    This is the selector on the handlebars. Hold down power button for 5 seconds to turn on.

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    Here is a manual on how to use the M600 dashboard, just click on this link to open the manual. Thank you Brad for making it!

    Optional 860C color display

    Please click link to be redirected to the product listing for more info

    Video walkthrough

    BASIC Troubleshooting

    Error codes:

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    -IF you are experiencing cut outs, error 30 or complete shutdown please follow these 3 steps.
    -If your motor runs hot really fast (like after a few minutes) or is stuttering /hesitating , please scroll to advanced troubleshooting section, you will need to open the motor and get a BESST tool.

    1) The battery

    This is the battery, showing a standard led power readout, on/off button, and barrel charge port. Make sure that the power button is pressed in and lighting up. Remove the battery and inspect the terminals.

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    2) Display connections:

    2x Green harness wire that goes into the back of the display needs to be shoved in really hard, you should hear and feel a click or a pop, if you are having trouble turning it on be sure to check this and the other connectors. Recommended to unplug the connector before firmly plugging it back in.

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    On the DPC-240, you will need to push them in hard and make sure that they are perfectly aligned, there should only be a 2mm gap between the display bracket and the line on the connectors.

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    The gap between the bracket and the connector line should be 2mm, if it's not 2mm then take a long nose plier and grap the connector body and push on it (click here to see) . DO NO PUSH ON THE WIRES AT THE TIP OF THE CONNECTORS.

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    3) The motor main connections.

    Remove the 2 allen head bolts that secures the bash-guard under the motor. On the left side of the motor you will find a plastic plate with 3 torx T10 screws, remove that plate to expose the connections. No need to remove the motor!

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    On the far left you have the main harness multipin connector, the middle (purple) is unused on the right one is the speedometer. Please check these 2 it's possible that one is halfway out an giving issues. Unplug, then press them in firmly, like the display connections. For an example of this solution see this page.

    On on the far right you have the battery main power lead (yellow XT60), you can unplug this one and measure the voltage from the battery to be sure that you dont have a bad connection. With the power button to ON, you should be measure anything from 38V to 54.6V. (Again you don't have to remove the motor from the bike you can do all this with the motor on the bike)

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    Tip: You can use a long nose plier covered with tape to push in the connectors into the motor., The connector should have a 4mm gap between the case and the connector line.

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    Advanced troubleshoot

    You tried all 3 steps and still no power? No display or nothing:

    Make sure that you have voltage going out of the battery , you can measure the voltage from the XT60 like explained in step 3 of the basic troubleshooting or you can measure the voltage from the battery direct. I recommend you start from the XT60 first. If you have voltage there it means the battery is likely fine! IF you dont then you will have to remove the battery and measure from the terminals under the pack.

    With the battery turned ON, just stick your multimeter probes in to the 2 outside terminals (the inner ones are not connected),

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    A) if you don't have any voltage then maybe your inner battery connector got unplugged. Jsut remove the 4 screws from the top and make sure the connector are plugged in.

    DO the same at the bottom of the battery you should have a XT60 connector there.

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    B) If you have power from the battery, Then measure the voltage from the Xt60 male connector that is plugged into the motor, Simply make sure the battery is inserted and powered on, unplug the XT and measure from the male side (not on the motor).

    But your are not measuring anything going into the motor Or the display power up and then just quits right away? please remove the battery cradle and inspect the back of the male terminal, make sure the no wire came loose or pulled out.

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    If you have the Fisher Fab house LED it should look like this

    Note for the Fisher LED, if you light and motor/display do not power up then start with unplugging this yellowfins connector (XT30) and try again.

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    If you have a broken connection (and not sure how to fix it) or a battery that still does not work after inspecting the connections, please open a support ticket at

    Display lights up but motor is stuttering/hesitating or it run very poorly and gets hot really fast?

    This is possibly due to the magnet at the tip of the rotor shaft that came loose. This magnet is a special magnet, the polarity is very different than your regular fridge magnet, it's got lateral poles so when the motor is turning the controller can pickup the changing magnetic field and know when to send the power. If the magnet has moved then the controller will run very poorly.

    To fix this you need a BESST tool, you will need to pull out the controller to unplug the 3 pin large XT connector (blue, yellow, green wires) and the temp sensor connector (2 black wires with white connector). Then you will have to remove the motor core out from the left side of the motor casing (3x Torx head).

    At the tip of the shaft you will see a magnet, if it's missing look inside the motor it's not far. Glue that magnet in place using super glue, if it's greased up you will have to clean it good before applying glue.

    In the picture below you see the 2 connectors that you need to unplug and also you can see the magnet at the tip of the rotor that has moved out of it's place.

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    Next step will be to re-install the core and and then calibrate the motor using the BESST

    This is the video on how to use the BESST. WARNING: Do not plug the display into the BESST while calibrating the motor like you see in the video.

    If you can't do all this email us a and we will help you.

    Battery is not charging / BMS is in fault

    When you connect the charger to a battery that is not at 100% SOC (state of charge), the charger status LED should be red not green. If it's green that means the charger thinks the battery is charged. So what can be the problem?

    1) Charger is defective
    2)Charge port is broken (a wire is disconnected from the back, or the - tab or +pin are damaged)

    3) BMS is in fault.

    1) So make sure that the battery is still working, so plug it in the bike and see if it still works. If it does not work go back to the section above this.

    The first step would be to rule out the charger, so if you have another 48V Li-ion charger you can try it, if you have a 52V charger you can also try it but only for a few seconds as you don't want to go over the 54.6V limit. Or you can try this charger on another ebike or 48V battery (if you have access to it). If you don't the best way to know if it's working is to do a jumpstart on the discharge, that can do 2 things, first it can clear a BMS fault (#3) and it will confirm that the charger is good or bad

    Jumpstart procedure

    Se have a in depth guide on general battery issue and if you click the following link it will take you to it, just scroll down to step 2.2 and it will show you how to do it on a battery that is pretty similar to the X1 . Click here to be redirected

    All you need is t pieces of wires to be able to link the battery to the charge port. IT is easier if you have 2 set of hands.. If not what I do is tape up the wires to the charger barrel end and work on the battery with my 2 hands. Remember, this is safe but only charge for a few seconds... you are bypassing the BMS charging protections by doing this. If the charger works, go to step #2.. if the charger does not work, it means the charger is likely bad!

    This is the polarity of the connector, battery in front of you, back facing you , connector at the bottom, the right pin is the positive and ground on the left. You can use a multimeter to be sure!

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    Polarity of the charger barrel end

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    This is a shark battery but it's pretty much the exact same on your X1 battery, same kind of terminal (except the positive is on the left on the shark) and same charger

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    2) Charger does work fine on the discharge connector

    That means the issue is in the battery, it can be simply that the wires inside the battery top are not making contact with the back side of the female port. So open the battery top and inspect the wiring. Can be something easy to spot. Have a look at the 2 first pictures of the advanced troubleshooting section (just scroll up a bit) you will have 2 wires going to the barrel end, see if one is detached.

    If you have a multimeter best would be to poke the insulation of these 2 wires to measure the voltage, you should have the exact same voltage that you have at the discharge connector were you did the jumpstart. If you do have the same voltage then that can be a confirmation that the actual charge port is bad, in this case we case help you, you just need to open a support ticket (if you already have one open just reply to us)

    If you don't have any voltage reading that means the BMS is in fault, likely a permanent fault because you just did a reset with the jumpstart. in this case open a support ticket (if you already have one open just reply to us)

    Error 21H or erratic speed reading?

    Please make sure that the magnet is properly aligned with the sensors

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    If it's ok , email support for more info.

    Mechanical troubleshooting

    Rear wheel fells loose, cassette wobbling side to side:

    If your rear wheel or rear hub feels loose or rear wheel is wobbly slightly, don't panic and watch this video, it's just likely the cone nut on the disak side that gotten loose. And while you're at it inspect the inside of the hub and bearings. This video is from Joel a Luna employee.

    Headset is loose, fork rattles and/or and cannot tighten the top cap more?:

    The X1 does not use a a standard star nut pressed into the fork steerer tube, it uses an expansion plug (AKA wedge plug or compression plug). Over time the wedge nut can loosen and move up the steerer tube. All you need to do is to adjust it a little down further.

    Instead or explaining how these work and how to adjust it and tighten the headset just watch one of these 2 videos that explains how to adjust it. It will fix your issue!!!

    Removing the motor

    Removing the motor is pretty easy, no special tools required.
    Remove bash guard (4x hex bolts )
    Remove plastic cover on non drive side (3x torx bolts T10)
    Remove the chainring spider if you need to remove it, do it now because it will be way harder to remove it later.
    Remove chainring 4x bolts (if you didn't already removed the spider /chainring bracket )
    Remove the 3 mounting bolts (5mm hex and 10mm socket.
    Motor will drop down . ( 3 plugs go into the side of motor)

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    The connectors directly on the bare motor. Check the connection here during troubleshooting in addition to the harness.

    How to remove the chainring bracket (AKA Spider) from the motor (if you must open the motor for service):
    This is recessed so a typical ring spanner will not work. A socket style bottom bracket tool for screw in bearing cups does the job. This tool will work: Bike Hand YC-29BB-2A as well as YC-29BB. Bafang socket tools will also work. A chain whip is needed to hold the chainring when removing the locking nut. The lockring is reverse or right hand-threaded, so you must turn it clockwise to remove it.

    We have a video on how to remove the motor to change the gear with a PEEK silent gear. This might help you remove the motor from the bike

    Note: that you do not have to remove the spider (as seen at the 0:23 mark) if you do not have the deep splined socket tool. You only need to remove the spider if you are opening the motor. If you have to send back the motor to the shop simply remove the chainring off the adapter as shown on the second video below.

    IF you need to remove the chainring from the spider please take a look at this video

    Here is a video on how the M600 gearbox works incase you ever need to open it up to inspect the motor :

    Replacing the main harness

    With the motor fully removed ,carefully tie dental floss or a used shifter/brake cable (or any flexible small cable) to old harness at display / throttle plug , pull from bottom and remove old harness leaving guide wire in the frame . Carefully tape or tie guide wire to new display /throttle plug and push / pull gently til plugs come out of hole, be careful not to pull too hard. The junction where the throttle /display split it too big to fit thru frame hole so it stays inside the frame.

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    Advanced controller programming:

    This drive cannot be programmed like the other Bafang mid-drives unfortunately. It uses the Bafang dealer tool called the BESST. IT can only can flash a new firmware, calibrate a controller and change a couple minor settings

    Also changing the controller will require a BESST tools with dealer access to calibrate the new controller to the motor

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    Customer reviews and unboxing videos:

    (please note early adopters had some included swag as a thank you; tshirt, bottle, handwritten thank you etc. This is not something currently included with later production runs)

    Dan's unboxing:

    Support notes: in Dan's video were he install the right pedal he says turn counter clockwise... it's not counterclockwise but clockwise like he did on the video!

    Brad's unboxing:

    Brad's dropper seat post fix :

    Brad's size comparison to a 26" standard MTB

    Dan's noise testing

    Dan's friend test ride

    *Staff note: the videos we linked are from some customers of ours (Dan and Brad), they were not paid or asked to do this, we simply reached out to him to ask permission after the videos were posted on youtube.


    This is a 3D printable mount for Upstand or Corki bike stand
    Attached Files
    Last edited by Sebz; 3 weeks ago.

    Any idea when these will be open for orders again?


    • paxtana
      paxtana commented
      Editing a comment
      Probably about a week

    • paxtana
      paxtana commented
      Editing a comment
      Orders are open again. Heads up it won't ship for couple weeks from now though.

    Are the directions for programming the display anywhere?
    Need to change from kmph to mph.



    • Tigweld
      Tigweld commented
      Editing a comment
      I didn’t find documentation but if you hold down + & - until you get the setting screen. i got mine into settings to adjust to imperial.
      Last edited by Tigweld; 09-25-2019, 07:51 AM.

    • Sebz
      Sebz commented
      Editing a comment
      added! thank you Tigweld

    • Ken473
      Ken473 commented
      Editing a comment
      Thank you, Tigweld!

    I received my bike two nights ago(XL standard output with throttle) and have done about 30miles of road tests (dirt test will be Saturday).
    Here is what I have seen and tried so far:
    - front ring is 32t: I tried swapping up to a 44 and it's too big and will hit rear swing arm. A 40t ring fits and I have not tried a 42.
    - AI sensitivity setting: I have tried every setting between 0-5 and I don't feel any difference. But I'm not sure what difference I'm looking for? Any ideas?
    - Moderate pedaling on flat in top gear with 32t is only getting me 18mph

    Dirt test results:
    - This thing is a mountain goat.
    - While I would love ludicrous mode to unleash all it's power, I can say if you are looking for a solid eduro mtn bike with more power than any Trek, Specialized, etc. you have found a great bike to by.
    - 4k ft of climbing on two rides was *gasp Fun. I climbed stuff I didn't feel confident descending. That is a first.
    Last edited by Tigweld; 10-02-2019, 11:28 AM. Reason: update from dirt testing


    • Robocam
      Robocam commented
      Editing a comment
      Yes, it was announced in the Facebook group.

    • bl2000watts
      bl2000watts commented
      Editing a comment
      Tigweld did you find your bike noisy?

    • Robocam
      Robocam commented
      Editing a comment
      I just got mine. It is not loud at all. It’s not silent like my BBSHD or Ultra but it’s definitely not loud.

    Will derailleur hangers be available for purchase, and/or where can we buy them?


    • paxtana
      paxtana commented
      Editing a comment
      Yes we have some on order and will be making them available.

    This bike is marketed as silent. Mine seems pretty loud.

    Is this normal? Any way to make it quieter? Or is this a consequence of the steel gears?


    • paxtana
      paxtana commented
      Editing a comment
      For what it's worth it does not seem abnormally loud compared to the couple other m600 motor videos I have seen so far where there was something obviously wrong. No mid drive is ever going to be completely silent, especially if it is modded with steel gear internals and a decent power level. The feedback is appreciated and I will look into revising the wording to something more realistic.

      I do not believe the shop will have more of these for another couple of weeks, but if you don't mind waiting then it may be possible to swap. We would need to check and get back to you. Probably best to have this escalated to either Seb or myself (Gary) if you speak with support.

    • tomdav
      tomdav commented
      Editing a comment
      Thanks, I sent an email to you. Let me know if you did not get it.

    • Tigweld
      Tigweld commented
      Editing a comment
      That matches the sound I hear.
      Silent it is not. I'm about 150miles in now and it has either got a bit quieter or I have gotten used to it. I can live with it.
      Sound is not the only thing that is different to the bbs02. It has taken a while to get used to how/when etc. the power comes on in comparison to the bbs02. More natural once you get used to it.
      Last edited by Tigweld; 10-02-2019, 12:16 PM.

    Is the Ludicrous controller internally mounted like the stock controller? how long has it been in use on the M600?


    • paxtana
      paxtana commented
      Editing a comment
      It is internally mounted same as stock.

    I received my X-1 last night, assembled, charged and test rode it around the neighborhood. Mine has the optional ludicrous mode but I have yet to figure out how to engage that option. Anyone?
    So far, top speed, top gear, level 5 assist, motor only (throttle lever, not pedaling) is 24 mph on a flat road. I'd think that it should go faster?
    Also, what does the lever above the throttle lever do? Doesn't seem to do anything yet.


    • tomdav
      tomdav commented
      Editing a comment
      I believe that would be the seat dropper.
      Last edited by tomdav; 09-29-2019, 12:18 AM.

    • paxtana
      paxtana commented
      Editing a comment
      Ludi doubles current, it is always on. The bike is intentionally geared for mountains by default. If you want more speed you will want to gear it up. It uses stock chainrings 4 bolt 104 BCD, a common BCD so it is easy to swap to different rings.

    • New Mariner
      New Mariner commented
      Editing a comment
      A 40T crank gear would improve your top end speed. Possibly a 42T may fit?. It is not set up to use the 11T. You would have to change that.

    I wonder if tomdav missed any forum posting complaints about the noise. Jeezus dude! It’s not that loud.


    • New Mariner
      New Mariner commented
      Editing a comment
      If it is noisy, he should be sharing that to different forums. If his is a one off of noise someone else should post a video that shows a quieter motor. People are just sharing information. At least he didn't share it around without a video supporting his statement..

    • Scoonie
      Scoonie commented
      Editing a comment
      Why not take issues to the builder and come to a resolution with them. The net effect is dissing a maker before they can respond. Go visit a local sound company and get a dB rating. Anyone doing a modicum of research can learn metal gears in motors raising the sound level. Luna is creative but not magicians.

    • tomdav
      tomdav commented
      Editing a comment
      Well, I did post here. And if you note in paxtans's reply above, they don't have much they can recommend at this point. It's not as if me telling people the motor is loud is going to hurt Luna's sales. My guess is they will sell out immediately as soon as the bike is offered again and if they continue to market it as silent they will have folks like me who are disappointed.

      EDIT: I now believe my motor is abnormal based on feedback from Kepler. See here:
      Last edited by tomdav; 09-29-2019, 10:20 PM.

    Does anyone here know how I can tell if my bike does have the ludicrous programming, like a version # or something in settings?


    • paxtana
      paxtana commented
      Editing a comment
      Put a wattmeter in line with discharge. If wattmeter shows double what the display is reporting then you have ludi

    • Robocam
      Robocam commented
      Editing a comment
      Where would be the best place to cut the power line to install a meter?

    • paxtana
      paxtana commented
      Editing a comment
      You can put a watt meter in line of the xt60 by the motor, just remove the plastic cover on non drive side it has 3 t10 bolts

    OK, update: I just found out that by pressing the on/offf button (once turned on), it cycles through several items and shows wattage too. No need for a meter, etc.

    Another discovery, my bike was only showing 5 levels of assist. You can change that to 9, so now it shows 9 when pressing the up button. Should make a difference so IF it ever stops raining here, I'll take it out again.
    Last edited by joaklay; 09-29-2019, 01:48 PM.


    • paxtana
      paxtana commented
      Editing a comment
      It's not really that simple if you want to determine if you have ludi. Ludicrous on X1 is the same as the ludi bbshd controllers we make. It works by basically tricking the controller into doubling the current. Actual wattage readings from a wattmeter will be double whatever the display is reporting at any given time, because the display is taking those wattage readings from what the controller is reporting.

    #12 I hope that Luna will swap out a motor for you since yours apparently is abnormal? Did Keppler ever confirm that his motor had steel gears? Looking forward to his grease story when he opens it up. Appreciate your honest updates. I originally had ordered one because it was supposed to be quiet and canceled when it was said that Ludicrous would come without throttle. With no upgrade possible coming straight from CS email. it does not appear really loud, but it is not quiet either


    • tomdav
      tomdav commented
      Editing a comment
      Luna said the shop had tested 50 of them and they were all like mine, even the demo bike, somewhere between BBSHD and Cyclone in terms of noise. Given that, they could not exchange a motor since the one they send would not be any different. Sounds like they are testing different greases. I agree with Kepler that the noise seems less as the motor breaks in. Still more than I'm happy with but may not be that bothersome to others.

    • New Mariner
      New Mariner commented
      Editing a comment
      A well greased BBSHD is virtually silent. That was the noise level anticipated. Their ad said quiet. No video, no reports about noise level, i guess they were doing everything possible to reduce the noise level before giving out more info. It is an awesome bike, but not silent enough when you are riding around all non electrics.

    Where is the power level screw located on the Ludicrous model?


      Originally posted by jmbach View Post
      Any idea when these will be open for orders again?
      So any day now?


      • paxtana
        paxtana commented
        Editing a comment
        It is open for ordering now.

      I just put my bike together. Does anyone know what the switch next to the throttle does? I haven't had a chance to ride mine yet but was just wondering.


      • Tigweld
        Tigweld commented
        Editing a comment
        that is the dropper post lever. Putting pressure down on the seat(by sitting or pushing with hand) and hitting the button will lower the seat. Releasing weight and hitting the button allows the seat to raise. Pretty standard on modern mtn bikes.